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Une information citoyenne au service d'une identité européenne

Faire du citoyen européen un utilisateur de média averti. Préoccupation du Parlement européen mais aussi de la conférence ministérielle de Vienne: e-inclusion

pdf mise en ligne :30 12 2008 ( NEA say… n° 58 )

IMMIGRATION > Système d'information sur les visas

Les médias sont à la fois un défi et une chance : ils ouvrent des possibilités de communication mondiale, mais comportent aussi le risque d'une manipulation accrue. Afin d'aider à faire du citoyen européen un utilisateur de média averti, le PE invite, dans un rapport d'initiative, la Commission à lancer un plan d'action sur la compétence médiatique dans le monde numérique afin d'éduquer les citoyens sur certains aspects du monde des médias, notamment les droits d'auteur et la cyber-violence, sans parler de la protection des données personnelles.

D'après le rapport de Christa Prets (PSE, AT), adopté à 583 voix pour, 23 contre et 4 abstentions (FR) (EN), "on entend par compétence médiatique la capacité d'utiliser de façon autonome les différent médias, de comprendre et d'évaluer de façon critique les divers aspects des médias et des contenus médiatiques, de communiquer ceux-ci dans divers contextes, de créer et de diffuser des contenus médiatiques".

Il souligne que les activités d'éducation aux médias doivent inclure tous les citoyens : enfants, jeunes, adultes, personnes âgées et personnes souffrant d'un handicap.

L'éducation aux médias informera sur les aspects de droits d'auteur liés à l'utilisation des médias et sur l’importance du respect des droits de propriété intellectuelle, en particulier en ce qui concerne Internet, ainsi que sur la sécurité des données, le respect de la vie privée et le droit à l'autonomie informationnelle.

De plus, les députés soulignent que l'éducation aux médias devrait faire partie de l'éducation formelle à laquelle tous les enfants ont accès et devrait faire partie intégrante du programme scolaire à tous les niveaux.

Elaborer un programme d'action

Ils encouragent par conséquent la Commission à adopter une recommandation et à élaborer un programme d'action sur la compétence médiatique et demandent que la politique européenne réduise la fracture numérique entre les États membres et entre les milieux urbain et rural grâce au développement de l'infrastructure d'information et de communication et surtout grâce à l'installation de connexions à large bande dans les régions moins équipées.

La résolution du Parlement européen rejoint les préoccupations de la Conférence ministérielle de Vienne e-inclusion (30 novembre-1-2 décembre). La conférence ministérielle a ajouté les migrants à la liste du Rapport Prets (enfants, jeunes, adultes, personnes âgés, handicapés).IL resort que les migrants et les minorités ethniques sont très désireux (voire enthousiastes) d'utiliser les nouvelles technologies de l'informations: ils voient en elles un moyen utile pour accélérer leur intégration sociale. Leur appétit est parfois supérieur à la moyenne des autochtones. 120 initiatives ont été recensée en vue de favoriser leur emploi par les immigrés. Différents projets ont été présentés. Ils concernet les nouveaux arrivants comme ceux de la seconde génération. Les résultats ont été pésentés comme plutôt surprenenat pour les observateurs.

Concernant ce dernier point cf ci-dessous le compte rendu du panel

 

Session Chair: Stefano KLUZER (European Commission, Joint Research Centre - Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Spain).

Speakers:

Pedro AGUILERA (Connecta Joven, Fundación Esplai, Spain)

Andrea A. CORTINOIS (Instituto de Innovación para el Bienestar Ciudadano - I2BC, International Relations and Networks, Spain)

Ed KLUTE (Mira Media, Netherlands)

Stefano KLUZER (European Commission, Joint Research Centre - Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Spain)

Lora PAPPAS (National Youth Foundation, Greece)

Introduction

Immigrants and ethnic minorities are often eager users of ICT.  This session explored the current and potential benefits of the direct and indirect use of ICT by and for immigrants and ethnic minorities, especially for enabling social inclusion and promoting cultural diversity in the EU.  Speakers showcased several projects either taking ICT to users, or using ICT to improve services for immigrants. 

Stefano KLUZER (European Commission, Joint Research Centre - Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Spain), The Digital Integration of Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities in Europe: Results from recent IPTS studies

The Riga declaration aims to promote cultural diversity by stimulating participation of migrants in the information society.  Up to 2m migrants come to Europe annually.  There are 27m foreigners in Europe (5.6% of the total population) and adding those who acquired a new nationality there are 50m foreign born people.  Migrants are enthusiastic users of ICT– sometimes more so than the average for the local population, being younger, highly mobile with a dispersed social network, eager to maintain links with their home country and knowing they need ICT skills both for their jobs and for their children’s education.  Even so, many of the factors that drive the digital divide are also found within migrant communities: age, new language proficiency, education, socio-economic class, gender, physical infrastructure, and paucity of content or services relevant to their needs and language skills.  Immigrants’ ignorance of available host country digital resources which might be relevant for them is compounded by their tendency to stay in their own expatriate communities. 

The study found 120 initiatives addressing different dimensions of these problems, either helping migrants to use ICT, or using ICT to help minorities, but initiatives are fragmented, often local and with only a limited role played by the commercial sector. 

The study concluded that ‘access measures’ (such as public internet access points, multi-language information and services) are more successful if they relate closely to the purposeful, current and everyday needs of the migrant people (such as jobs or education); if they offer a ‘blended solution’ involving face-to-face engagement as well as eAccess.  The most successful services and initiatives were most likely community-focused ones promoting the use of new digital media for self- and collective expression, bridging the social and the technological.  The study also found that third sector organisations, voluntary groups etc. need training to better scope and run ICT-based services. 

Ed KLUTE (Mira Media, Netherlands), Local Community Development and Ethnic Entrepreneurship

Research shows that also within migrant communities confidence with ICT is high in people under 25 years old and declines significantly in populations over 45.  This offers opportunities for using digital communications to encourage participation, education, social dialogue, intercultural dialogue and for providing essential information to migrant populations. ICT infrastructure and available skills attract new economic activities and can upgrade the local community. In order to make this happen, we have to make full use of intermediaries in motivating target groups and delivering initiatives. Third sector organisations have important responsibilities here. However, beyond social and cultural effects, there is also a potential breeding ground for new professional activities and businesses involving young migrant entrepreneurs as we need professionals to support and assist the migrant communities to make full use of the new digital opportunities. Examples of ICT entrepreneurship and job opportunities in multicultural local communities are: Digi-Help services for the elderly; media coaches to support schools libraries and parents in media awareness activities; ICT- related shops; ICT support for ethnic small and medium enterprises; audio-video production (+video clips); ICT skilled youth workers; Journalists. Vocational training centres have an important task in developing new vocational training schemes to prepare for these jobs and ICT entrepreneurship. They should make more efforts to attract students from migrant communities and make their training tailor made to these new market opportunities. Creating work experience places in the multicultural areas can make a big difference.

The development and exploitation of intercultural internet information products offers another business opportunity for migrants. In July 2002 the Dutch Press Fund introduced an experimental stimulation measure for the benefit of intercultural internet information products with innovative business plans. Each project could receive support up to 40% of the project costs, with a maximum of € 180.000 for each project. Most projects are in the sphere of local news, civil journalism and websites which specifically aim at ethnic minorities and young audiences. However, many initiatives proved to have problems with financial management, marketing and distribution. Therefore the Dutch Press fund develops, in cooperation with Mira Media, a support structure which will offer: management support to new and starting firms, based on the training program developed in the ESF-Equal project Mediashakers and a joint distribution and marketing platform after the model of New American Media.

 

Pedro AGUILERA (Connecta Joven, Fundación Esplai, Spain), CONECTA YOUTH, Giving Citizenship, Improving Opportunities

Thirty percent of young people in Spain don’t finish their education, which leads to a succession of negative consequences such as failure to find a job or achieve even low-level professional qualifications.  Lack of ICT skill lowers educational achievement and immigrants with low education suffer more digital exclusion.   Exclusion from society often leads to negative behaviour.  The CONECTA YOUTH project trains 16-18 yr old, including 2nd generation immigrants to teach basic ICT skills to adults who have never used a computer, especially those who were unemployed, newly arrived migrants, people disabled or isolated by gender or old age.  The young people gained social skills, presentation skills and a greater awareness of their cultural roots: Two project's participants who attended the session testified that ‘Teaching and learning at the same time is incredible’.  The whole project raised awareness of disability and fostered understanding between cultures and generations, but the trust took time to build. 

Lora PAPPAS (National Youth Foundation, Greece), “ESTIA”: an innovative interactive network for the benefit of the asylum seekers and refugees.

This project had two aims: 1) to secure more effective collaboration between the different agencies that deal with refugees' and migrants' legal, social, medical or educational needs; and 2) to assist refugees and asylum seekers in uncovering and accessing relevant services.  Through ESTIA an innovative interactive electronic network, a single data registration service registers asylum seekers and logs their claims trough a referral system to the various agencies involved.  Each agency's intervention is also logged, resulting in better co-ordination between services and avoiding costly (and potentially dangerous) overlaps, such as a person who was prescribed the same medication from three different practitioners.  Project benefits have attracted additional service providers (beyond the original partnership) to join in, promulgating best practice around the network and raising the overall quality of service provision.  Asylum seekers receive a better and faster treatment of their claim; individual agencies save time and effort; and policy makers have valid data to inform future provision.  However, building effective partnerships is very important and not always straightforward given the diversity of stakeholders involved (NGOs, Trade Unions, Ministries, International Organizations, University) .  It is also challenging to strike the right balance between shared data access for improved service delivery with data privacy for the individuals concerned.

Andrea A. CORTINOIS (Instituto de Innovación para el Bienestar Ciudadano - I2BC, International Relations and Networks, Spain), Putting Information and Communication Technologies at the Service of Immigrant Settlement in Ontario, Canada

The immigrant population in Canada is significant, especially in cities such as Toronto, and few newly arrived immigrants are well informed about the country or its public services.  Many are painfully disempowered when they arrive because they don’t speak the language and some have surprisingly low expectations about the availability of public services to help them.  This project in its starting phase aims to assemble and publish relevant information and supply a personal coach/navigator to help newly arrived immigrants to navigate the information services.  Some of the guides are expected to be professionals but many are volunteers who have themselves been through the experience of being a newly arrived immigrant and have benefitted from training offered by the project in how to coach and mentor other people now facing the same situation. 

A major insight from the project is the value of offering (or pointing at) information that is meaningful in the context of an immigrant’s current experience and situation (which evolves over time). A ‘Wikitips’ will be developed to pass on experiential learning, as well as promoting social engagement for participants.  This project team sought out existing agencies already active in the field and didn’t try to build a constituency from the ground upwards.  The gain will accrue not only to immigrant users of the service but also with the public and/or NGO agencies involved who should gain knowledge, data and insights that enable them to improve their services to immigrants and to formulate stronger funding bids. 

 

Conclusions

Uptake, use and interest in ICT are surprisingly high among immigrants and ethnic minorities.  ICT is a known driver of inclusion, employability and citizenship.  However, many of the recognized drivers of the digital divide are also found among migrants: age, language, education, socio-economic deprivation, gender, infrastructure, lack of suitable content, and are reinforced by the tendency of migrants to stay in their own expat communities.  Successful projects focus on information or activity that is meaningful in the context of individuals’ current experience and needs, mix face-to-face engagement with eAccess, and include non-digital issues with the digital ones.  A key lesson was to connect and build on existing initiatives that already have a meaningful focus for users and providers, so partnerships become very important.  It takes time to build trust.